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Kindergarten Curriculum Benchmarks

Reading
Standard 1. The student understands and uses different skills and strategies to read.
  • Is aware of print in the environment
    [ 3]
  • Is aware that print conveys meaning
    [ 7]
  • Uses pictures to predict text
    [ 7]
  • Knows direction of print (left to right and top to bottom)
    [ 4]
  • Knows what a letter is and what a word is
    [ 6]
  • Knows letters and sounds and uses them to decode some words
    [ 2]
  • Hears sound sequence in words (phonemic awareness)
    [ 4]
  • Matches spoken and written word
    [ 8]
1.2 Builds vocabulary through reading
  • Learns “school” and directional language
    [ 2]
  • Knows some high-frequency words by sight
    [ 3]
  • Understands the meaning of new words by listening to reading of fiction and nonfiction
    [ 7]
1.3 Reads fluently, adjusting reading for purpose and material
  • Begins to read environmental print
    [ 2]
  • Participates in group reading (shared, guided, buddy)
    [ 10]
  • Revisits and memorizes favorite books
    [ 5]
1.4 Understands elements of literature
  • Recognizes rhyme, repetition, and story patterns
    [ 6]
  • Identifies the sequence (beginning, middle, and end) of a story
    [ 8]
  • Understands a story map based on story elements
  • Identifies book parts and text features: cover, title page
    [ 4]
1.5 Uses features of nonfiction text and computer software.
  • Identifies and understands text features:
    [ 2]
  • Computer: keyboard, icon, mouse
    [ 2]
  • Text: title, page number, caption, label, chart, author, and illustrator
    [ 4]
Standard 2. The student understands the meaning of what is read.
2.1 Comprehends important ideas and details
  • Retells what was read to him/her
    [ 13]
  • Can answer questions about stories (fiction and nonfiction)
    [ 6]
  • Connects text and personal experience
    [ 4]
  • Predicts and/or confirms with evidence from text and guidance
    [ 5]
2.2 Expands comprehension by analyzing, interpreting, and synthesizing information and ideas
  • Predicts and supports with evidence from text with guidance
    [ 4]
  • Understands that some text is true, and some is not
    [ 4]
Standard 3. The student reads different materials for a variety of purposes.
3.1 Reads to learn new information and
3.2 Reads to perform a task
  • Explores or listens to a variety of nonfiction:
    [ 6]
  • Instructions
    [ 3]
  • Report
    [ 1]
  • Nonfiction text: science, social studies, math, the arts, health and fitness
    [ 2]
3.3 Reads for literary experience in a variety of forms
  • Explores, listens to, or reads a variety of fiction:
    – Narrative (realistic, fantasy)
    – Verse (counting, rhyme, playground)
    – Letter (personal)
    – Journal/diary
    – Song
    [ 9]
Standard 4. The student sets goals and evaluates progress to improve reading.
4.1 Assesses strengths and need for improvement
  • Is beginning to see self as a reader
    [ 4]
  • Assesses own progress in learning sounds, words, and retelling with teacher guidance
    [ 2]
  • Talks about own reading
    [ 4]
4.2 Seeks and offers feedback to improve reading
  • Talks with teacher, parents, and peers about progress
    [ 2]
4.3 Develops interests and shares reading experiences
  • Self-selects texts on basis of interest or familiarity at appropriate level with guidance
    [ 3]
Writing
Standard 1. The student writes clearly and effectively.
1.1 Ideas and organization
  • Ideas
    * Draws pictures or scribbles to convey meaning
    [ 5]
  • Tells about pictures
    [ 4]
  • Makes attempts at writing using letters
    [ 2]
  • Participates in group writing
    [ 6]
  • Organization
    * Understands that writing has a beginning and an ending
    [ 6]
1.2 Style (voice, word choice, sentence fluency)
  • Voice
    * Understands that print conveys meaning
    [ 3]
  • Word choice
    * Copies familiar words from the environment
    [ 6]
  • Sentence fluency
    * Uses literary language in dictation (e.g., “Once upon a time”)
    [ 3]
1.3 Conventions (see also, Expected Conventions by Grade Level)
  • Knows and can form letters (upper and lower case)
    [ 9]
  • Writes top to bottom, left to right
    [ 8]
  • Writes own name
    [ 3]
Standard 2. The student writes in a variety of forms for different audiences and purposes.
2.1 Writes for different audiences
  • Writes for self, peers, teacher, family
    [ 7]
2.2 Writes for different purposes
  • narrative: to tell a story
    [ 8]
  • expository: to inform, to explain, to observe
    [ 5]
2.3 Writes in a variety of forms
  • attempts a variety of forms including: sign, note or card, alphabet book, list, journal, story
    [ 4]
Standard 3. The student understands and uses the steps of the writing process.
(see also writing continuum)
3.1 Prewrites
  • Uses pictures or discussion to plan writing
    [ 5]
3.2 Drafts
  • Uses own language, drawings, or symbols to create a rough draft
    [ 6]
3.3 Revises
  • Dictates text
    [ 3]
3.4 Edits
  • Checks for correct letter formation
    [ 7]
3.5 Publishes
  • Writes legibly
    [ 7]
  • Reads writing to others
    [ 6]
Standard 4. The student analyzes and evaluates the effectiveness of written work.
4.1 Assesses own strengths and need for improvement
  • Sees self as a writer
    [ 4]
  • Assesses progress and sets writing goals with teacher guidance
    [ 4]
4.2 Seeks and offers feedback
  • Reads and discusses own writing
    [ 6]
  • Responds to others’ writing and/or drawings
    [ 4]
Communication
Standard 1. The student uses listening and observation skills to gain understanding.
1.1 Focuses attention
  • Focuses attention for periods of time (appropriate to age) and understands why this is important
    [ 2]
1.2 Listens and observes to gain and interpret information
  • Recognizes nonverbal communication
    [ 1]
  • Observes carefully and understands visual information
    [ 2]
  • Listens for and identifies main ideas
    [ 2]
  • Follows simple oral directions
    [ 2]
1.3 Checks for understanding by asking questions and paraphrasing
  • Asks questions about what is studied
    [ 1]
  • Recalls what has been seen or heard
    [ 3]
  • Relates own experience to what is being expressed
    [ 2]
Standard 2. The student communicates ideas clearly and effectively
2.1 Communicates clearly to a range of audiences for different purposes
  • Communicates to teachers, small group, and class (e.g., show and tell)
    [ 3]
  • Knows when it is appropriate to speak
    [ 2]
  • Begins to use language for different purposes
    [ 2]
2.2 Develops content and ideas
  • Speaks on one topic
    [ 6]
  • Gives accurate information
    [ 6]
2.3 Uses effective delivery
  • Uses appropriate volume
    [ 4]
  • Speaks with oral expression
    [ 4]
  • Makes some eye contact
    [ 4]
  • Faces audience
    [ 4]
2.4 Uses effective language and style
  • Uses complete sentences
    [ 4]
  • Uses age-appropriate vocabulary
    [ 3]
  • Uses respectful language
    [ 1]
2.5 Effectively uses action, sound, and/or images to support presentations
  • Sometimes uses resources in presentations (e.g., objects, pictures)
    [ 5]
Standard 3. The student uses communication strategies and skills to work effectively with others.
3.1 Uses language to interact effectively and responsibly with others
  • Demonstrates basic conversation skills: participating, taking turns, asking for assistance, using basic courtesies (e.g., please, thank you)
    [ 2]
  • Is aware that there are different purposes for speech (e.g., to warn, to make someone laugh)
    [ 1]
  • Uses nonverbal clues
    [ 1]
  • Uses respectful language
    [ 1]
3.2 Works cooperatively as a member of a group
  • Expresses own ideas in group discussions and conversation
    [ 1]
3.3 Seeks agreement and solutions through discussion
  • Shares own ideas
    [ 1]
  • Is aware that personal actions have consequences
    [ 1]
  • Seeks a solution
    [ 1]
  • Tries a solution
    [ 1]
Standard 4. The student analyzes and evaluates the effectiveness of formal and informal communication.
4.1 Assesses strengths and needs for improvement; assesses own and others’ communication strengths and needs and sets goals for improvement
  • Uses established criteria to evaluate and set goals to improve one’s own and others’ presentations (e.g., one topic)
    [ 4]
4.2 Seeks and offers feedback; seeks and uses feedback to improve communication; offers suggestions and comments to others
  • Offers constructive feedback on others? Presentations
    [ 5]
  • Accepts and applies feedback on own presentations when appropriate
    [ 4]
4.3 Analyzes mass communication
  • Identifies various forms of mass communication (e.g., movies, radio, video games, billboards)
    [ 1]
  • Identifies topic
    [ 1]
MathematicsNumber Sense

Number Sense and Computation
MNS Students understand concepts and apply skills, which develop number sense.
MKNS1 Students understand the relationship between numbers and quantities.
  • 1.1 Compare two or more sets of objects (up to ten objects in each group) and identify which set is equal to, more than, or less than the other.
    [ 2]
  • 1.2 Count, recognize, represent, name, and order a number of objects (up to 30).
    [ 15]
  • 1.3 Know that the larger numbers describe sets with more objects in them than the smaller numbers have.
    [ 4]
  • 2.0 Students understand and describe simple additions and subtractions:
    [ 6]
  • 2.1 Use concrete objects to determine the answers to addition and subtraction problems. (for two numbers that are each less than 10).
    [ 5]
  • 3.0 Students use estimation strategies in computation and problem solving that involve numbers that use the ones and tens places:
    [ 2]
  • 3.1 Recognize when an estimate is reasonable.
Algebra and Functions
Algebra and Functions
MAF Students use concepts and patterns involved with developing algebraic thought.MKAF1 Students sort and classify objects.

  • 1.1 Identify, sort, and classify objects by attribute and identify objects that do not belong to a particular group.
    [ 2]
Measurement and Geometry
Measurement and Geometry
MMG Students understand and apply measurement and geometric concepts.MKMG1 Students understand the concept of time and units to measure it; they understand that objects have properties, such as length, weight, and capacity, and that comparisons may be made by referring to those properties.

  • 1.1 Compare the length, weight, and capacity of objects by making direct comparisons with reference objects.
    [ 3]
  • 1.2 Demonstrate an understanding of concepts of time (e.g., morning, afternoon, evening, today, yesterday, tomorrow, week, year) and tools that measure time.
    [ 3]
  • 1.3 Name the days of the week.
    [ 3]
  • 1.4 Identify the time (to the nearest hour) of everyday events.
    [ 4]
MKMG2 Students identify common objects in their environment and describe the geometric features.
  • 2.1 Identify and describe common geometric objects (e.g., circle, triangle, square, rectangle, cube, sphere, cone).
    [ 3]
  • 2.2 Compare familiar plane and solid objects by common attributes (e.g., position, shape, size, roundness, number of corners).
    [ 1]
Statistics and Probability
Statistics, Data Analysis and Probability
MSP Students apply concepts of statistics, data analysis and probability.MKSDAP1 Students collect information about objects and events in their environment.

  • 1.1 Pose information questions; collect data; and record the results using objects, pictures, and picture graphs.
    [ 5]
  • 1.2 Identify, describe, and extend simple patterns (such as circles or triangles) by referring to their shapes, sizes, or colors
    [ 4]
Mathematical Reasoning
Mathematical Reasoning and Application
MMR Students develop mathematical reasoning and understand the nature and uses of math.MKMR1 Students make decisions about how to set up a problem.

  • 1.1 Determine the approach, materials, and strategies to be used.
    [ 2]
  • 1.2 Use tools and strategies, such as manipulatives or sketches, to model problems.
    [ 3]
  • 2.0 Students solve problems in reasonable ways and justify their reasoning:
    [ 4]
  • 2.1 Explain the reasoning used with concrete objects and/or pictorial representations.
    [ 4]
  • 2.2 Make precise calculations and check the validity of the results in the context of the problem.
    [ 3]
SciencePHYSICAL SCIENCES
1. Properties of materials can be observed, measured, and predicted. As a basis for understanding this concept:

  • a. Students know objects can be described in terms of the materials they are made of (e. g., clay, cloth, paper) and their physical properties (e. g., color, size, shape, weight, texture, flexibility, attraction to magnets, floating, sinking).
    [ 2]
  • b. Students know water can be a liquid or a solid and can be made to change back and forth from one form to the other.
    [ 1]
  • c. Students know water left in an open container evaporates (goes into the air) but water in a closed container does not.
    [ 1]
LIFE SCIENCES
2. Different types of plants and animals inhabit the earth. As a basis for understanding this concept:

  • a. Students know how to observe and describe similarities and differences in the appearance and behavior of plants and animals (e. g., seed-bearing plants, birds, fish, insects).
    [ 5]
  • b. Students know stories sometimes give plants and animals attributes they do not really have.
    [ 2]
  • c. Students know how to identify major structures of common plants and animals (e. g., stems, leaves, roots, arms, wings, legs)
    [ 7]
EARTH SCIENCES
3. Earth is composed of land, air, and water. As a basis for understanding this concept:

  • a. Students know characteristics of mountains, rivers, oceans, valleys, deserts, and local landforms.
    [ 1]
  • b. Students know changes in weather occur from day to day and across seasons, affecting Earth and its inhabitants.
    [ 4]
  • c. Students know how to identify resources from Earth that are used in everyday life and understand that many resources can be conserved.
    [ 4]
INVESTIGATION AND EXPERIMENTATION
4. Scientific progress is made by asking meaningful questions and conducting careful investigations. As a basis for understanding this concept and addressing the content in the other three strands, students should develop their own questions and perform investigations. Students will:

  • a. Observe common objects by using the five senses.
    [ 6]
  • b. Describe the properties of common objects.
    [ 4]
  • c. Describe the relative position of objects by using one reference (e. g., above or below).
    [ 2]
  • d. Compare and sort common objects by one physical attribute (e. g., color, shape, texture, size, weight).
    [ 3]
  • e. Communicate observations orally and through drawings.
    [ 7]
Social StudiesTime, Continuity, and Change
Students will understand the role of history in shaping the past, present and future

  • Explain how and why the past is important to people.
    [ 3]
Students will understand how change and continuity is reflected over time.
  • Describe changes and continuities within families.
    [ 1]
Students will understand chronological relationships, patterns and classifications.
  • Understand various ways time is organized.
    [ 2]
Resources and Economic Activity
Students will understand how limited resources influence choice

  • Describe how limited resources are used to satisfy needs and wants.
    [ 2]
Students will understand how human needs and wants create economic activity and trade.
  • Describe how resources are used to create goods.
    [ 1]
  • Explain ways people exchange goods and services.
    [ 1]
Power, Authority and Government
Students will understand the purpose and structure of authority and government in exercising power.

  • Explain the purposes of rules in different settings.
    [ 3]
Students will understand the impact of power, authority, and government on people’s lives.
  • Describe how rules are made and enforced,
    [ 2]
Individuals, Groups and Institutions
Students will understand roles and functions of IGI in society and culture.

  • Identify and define significant IGIs.
    [ 3]
  • Understand rights and responsibilities of individuals and groups.
    [ 2]
People, Place and Environment
Students will understand how and why location influences human activity.

  • Identify physical and human features of places.
    [ 1]
Students will understand interactions between humans and the environment.
  • Explain how the environment influences human activity and ways humans depend on and adapt to the environment.
    [ 2]
Skills
Social Studies Skills

  • Identify and locate features on maps and globes.
    [ 3]
  • Use a calendar.
    [ 1]
  • Explain charts.
    [ 4]
  • Identify primary ideas expressed in data.
    [ 3]
  • Gather and classify information.
    [ 6]
  • Follow an inquiry based process (Super 3) – initiate and inquiry, develop a hypothesis, design and conduct research, support research, communicate findings.
    [ 3]
1.1 Uses word recognition and word meaning skills to read and comprehend text

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